### Article Index

We already know how the master sends a one and a zero the protocol for the slave device is exactly the same except that the master still provides the slots starting pulse.

That is the master starts a 60 microsecond slot by pulling the bus down for a bit more than 1 microsecond. Then the slave device either holds the line down for a further 15 microseconds minimum or it simply allows the line to float high. See below for the exact timings:

So all we have to do to read bits is to pull the line down for just a bit more than 1 microsecond and then sample the bus after a pause.

The data sheet gives 6 microseconds for the master's pulse and a 9 microsecond pause. In practice a final delay of 8 microseconds seems to work best and allows for the time to change the line's direction.

``````uint8_t readBit(uint8_t pin) {
bcm2835_gpio_fsel(pin, BCM2835_GPIO_FSEL_OUTP);
bcm2835_gpio_write(pin, LOW);
bcm2835_delayMicroseconds(6);
bcm2835_gpio_fsel(pin, BCM2835_GPIO_FSEL_INPT);
bcm2835_delayMicroseconds(8);
uint8_t b = bcm2835_gpio_lev(pin);
bcm2835_delayMicroseconds(55);
return b;
}``````

A logic analyzer shows the typical pattern of bits from the device:

Finally we need a function that will read a byte. As in the case of writing a byte there is no time criticality in the time between reading bits so we don't need to take extra special care in constructing the function;

``````int readByte(uint8_t pin) {
int byte = 0;
int i;
for (i = 0; i < 8; i++) {
byte = byte | readBit(pin) << i;
};
return byte;
}``````

The only difficult part is to remember that the 1-wire bus sends the least significant bit first and so this has to be shifted into the result from the right.

This is the final function we need. Now we can:

• ```test to see if a device is present.
presence(uint8_t pin)```
• ```write a byte
`void writeByte(uint8_t pin,int byte)````
• ```read a byte
`int readByte(uint8_t pin)````

These functions will be used in the next two chapters to work with two real 1-wire devices.

These are not the only functions we need to work with the 1-wire bus. We need to be able to compute the CRC error checks that are commonly used to confirm that data has been transmitted correctly and we need to perform a ROM search to discover what devices are connected to the bus.

## Now On Sale!

### For Errata and Listings Visit: IO Press

This our ebook on using the Raspberry Pi to implement IoT devices using the C programming language. The full contents can be seen below. Notice this is a first draft and a work in progress.

Chapter List

1. Introducing Pi (paper book only)

2. Getting Started With NetBeans In this chapter we look at why C is a good language to work in when you are creating programs for the IoT and how to get started using NetBeans. Of course this is where Hello C World makes an appearance.

3. First Steps With The GPIO
The bcm2835C library is the easiest way to get in touch with the Pi's GPIO lines. In this chapter we take a look at the basic operations involved in using the GPIO lines with an emphasis on output. How fast can you change a GPIO line, how do you generate pulses of a given duration and how can you change multiple lines in sync with each other?

4. GPIO The SYSFS Way
There is a Linux-based approach to working with GPIO lines and serial buses that is worth knowing about because it provides an alternative to using the bcm2835 library. Sometimes you need this because you are working in a language for which direct access to memory isn't available. It is also the only way to make interrupts available in a C program.

5. Input and Interrupts
There is no doubt that input is more difficult than output. When you need to drive a line high or low you are in command of when it happens but input is in the hands of the outside world. If your program isn't ready to read the input or if it reads it at the wrong time then things just don't work. What is worse is that you have no idea what your program was doing relative to the event you are trying to capture - welcome to the world of input.

6. Memory Mapped I/O
The bcm2835 library uses direct memory access to the GPIO and other peripherals. In this chapter we look at how this works. You don't need to know this but if you need to modify the library or access features that the library doesn't expose this is the way to go.

7. Near Realtime Linux
You can write real time programs using standard Linux as long as you know how to control scheduling. In fact it turns out to be relatively easy and it enables the Raspberry Pi to do things you might not think it capable of. There are also some surprising differences between the one and quad core Pis that make you think again about real time Linux programming.

8. PWM
One way around the problem of getting a fast response from a microcontroller is to move the problem away from the processor. In the case of the Pi's processor there are some builtin devices that can use GPIO lines to implement protocols without the CPU being involved. In this chapter we take a close look at pulse width modulation PWM including, sound, driving LEDs and servos.

9. I2C Temperature Measurement
The I2C bus is one of the most useful ways of connecting moderately sophisticated sensors and peripherals to the any processor. The only problem is that it can seem like a nightmare confusion of hardware, low level interaction and high level software. There are few general introductions to the subject because at first sight every I2C device is different, but here we present one.

10. A Custom Protocol - The DHT11/22
In this chapter we make use of all of the ideas introduced in earlier chapters to create a raw interface with the low cost DHT11/22 temperature and humidity sensor. It is an exercise in implementing a custom protocol directly in C.

11. One Wire Bus Basics
The Raspberry Pi is fast enough to be used to directly interface to 1-Wire bus without the need for drivers. The advantages of programming our own 1-wire bus protocol is that it doesn't depend on the uncertainties of a Linux driver.

12. iButtons
If you haven't discovered iButtons then you are going to find of lots of uses for them. At its simples an iButton is an electronic key providing a unique coce stored in its ROM which can be used to unlock or simply record the presence of a particular button. What is good news is that they are easy to interface to a Pi.

13. The DS18B20
Using the software developed in previous chapters we show how to connect and use the very popular DS18B20 temperature sensor without the need for external drivers.

14. The Multidrop 1-wire bus
Some times it it just easier from the point of view of hardware to connect a set of 1-wire devices to the same GPIO line but this makes the software more complex. Find out how to discover what devices are present on a multi-drop bus and how to select the one you want to work with.

15. SPI Bus
The SPI bus can be something of a problem because it doesn't have a well defined standard that every device conforms to. Even so if you only want to work with one specific device it is usually easy to find a configuration that works - as long as you understand what the possibilities are.

16. SPI MCP3008/4 AtoD  (paper book only)

17. Serial (paper book only)

18. Getting On The Web - After All It Is The IoT (paper book only)

19. WiFi (paper book only)

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